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Article: What are the components of CNC routers?


What are the components of CNC routers?

A computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine is powered by several key components that work in concert to provide precise, automated machining capabilities. In this article, I will use Lunyee's CNC milling machine as an example of its components.

What are the components of CNC routers

Stepper motors and drives

A stepper motor is paired with a driver to power movement along the machine axis. The driver converts controller signals into current and steps for the motor.

Linear guides

Precision linear guideways and bearings provide smooth motion during shaft positioning. Hardened steel shafts resist wear, while recirculating ball bearings reduce friction. The Z-axis of this desktop CNC router from Lunyee has the longest Z-axis travel of any standard model on the market at 80mm.

Spindle and tool changer

The spindle securely holds milling cutters, drills, engraving tools, or other cutters and provides rotary power. It can be configured with standard toolholders and collet.

Frames and beds

This machine from Lunyee features an aluminum frame as well as a one-piece aluminum plate for an all-metal construction that provides better rigidity.


CNC milling machines integrate motion control electronics, precision axis drives, rigid frames, and spindle tool drives to provide flexible computer-driven manufacturing capabilities in a powerful automation platform. Quality components are critical for accurate performance.

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